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An ISO 9001 : 2000 Certified

Gynaecologist & Obstetrician
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Dr. Meena Vankawala
M.B., D.G.O
Consultant Gynaecologist & Obstetrician
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    Department of Gynaecologist  
Comprehensive Maternity Care:
Antenatal Counselling by experts
Ultrasonography with Color Doppler
Foetal Monitoring System
Painless Delivery
Neonatal care
All types of Hysterectomies, Laproscopy & Hysteroscopy
Infertility & IUI Centre with in-house IUI Lab
Menopause Clinic
Facilities Available in Gynaecologist


Ultrasonography with Color Doppler
Ultrasonography with Color Doppler


Ultrasonography with Color Doppler

The aims of this prospective study were to investigate the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography alone, using the typical finding of the presence of an elongated shaped mass with incomplete septa, in the screening of hydrosalpinx in women undergoing surgery for gynaecological diseases, and to determine the predictive value of this method combined with colour Doppler energy (CDE) imaging evaluation and CA125 concentrations in differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. In the first part of the study, 378 consecutive pre-menopausal non-pregnant women were submitted to transvaginal ultrasonography alone before surgery. In the second part of the study, 256 adnexal masses underwent transvaginal ultrasonography combined with CDE imaging evaluation associated with spectral Doppler analysis and plasma concentrations of CA125. Sensitivity and specificity for the ultrasonographic screening were 84.6 and 99.7% respectively, calculated for each adnexum (n = 756) and 93.3 and 99.6% respectively, calculated for each mass, for differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. The CDE imaging and the evaluation of CA125 plasma concentrations do not seem to increase the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography. Inter- and intra-observer agreement, expressed in terms of k-values, was high (0.87 and 0.93 respectively). In conclusion, transvaginal ultrasonography alone is a useful method of detection of hydrosalpinx.

Sonography can be enhanced with Doppler measurements, which employ the Doppler effect to assess whether structures (usually blood) are moving towards or away from the probe, and its relative velocity. By calculating the frequency shift of a particular sample volume, for example a jet of blood flow over a heart valve, its speed and direction can be determined and visualised. This is particularly useful in cardiovascular studies (sonography of the vasculature system and heart) and essential in many areas such as determining reverse blood flow in the liver vasculature in portal hypertension. The Doppler information is displayed graphically using spectral Doppler, or as an image using color Doppler (directional Doppler) or power Doppler (non directional Doppler). This Doppler shift falls in the audible range and is often presented audibly using stereo speakers: this produces a very distinctive, although synthetic, pulsing sound.

Strictly speaking, most modern sonographic machines do not use the Doppler effect to measure velocity, as they rely on pulsed wave Doppler (PW). Pulsed wave machines transmit pulses of ultrasound, and then switch to receive mode. As such, the reflected pulse that they receive is not subject to a frequency shift, as the insonation is not continuous. However, by making several measurements, the phase change in subsequent measurements can be used to obtain the frequency shift (since frequency is the rate of change of phase). To obtain the phase shift between the received and transmitted signals, one of two algorithms is typically used: the Kasai algorithm or cross-correlation. Older machines, that use continuous wave (CW) Doppler, exhibit the Doppler effect as described above. To do this, they must have separate transmission and reception transducers. The major drawback of CW machines, is that no distance information can be obtained (this is the major advantage of PW systems - the time between the transmitted and received pulses can be converted into a distance with knowledge of the speed of sound).

In the sonographic community (although not in the signal processing community), the terminology "Doppler" ultrasound, has been accepted to apply to both PW and CW Doppler systems despite the different mechanisms by which the velocity is measured.


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